SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
|☒||ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
|☐||TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
For the transition period from to
Commission file number 001-35638
|WSFS FINANCIAL CORPORATION|
|(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)|
|(State or other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)|| ||(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)|
500 Delaware Avenue, Wilmington, Delaware
|(Address of Principal Executive Offices)|| ||(Zip Code)|
Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code: (302) 792-6000
|Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:|
|Title of Each Class||Trading Symbol(s)||Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered|
|Common Stock, $0.01 par value||WSFS||Nasdaq Global Select Market|
|Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None|
Indicate by check if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No ☐
Indicate by check if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes ☐ No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large accelerated filer|| ||x|| ||Accelerated filer|| ||☐|
|Non-accelerated filer|| ||☐ || ||Smaller reporting company|| ||☐|
|Emerging growth company||☐|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15. U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by nonaffiliates of the registrant, based on the closing price of the registrant’s common stock as quoted on Nasdaq as of June 30, 2020, was $1,437,086,921. For purposes of this calculation only, affiliates are deemed to be directors, executive officers and beneficial owners of greater than 10% of the registrant's outstanding common stock.
As of February 26, 2021, there were issued and outstanding 47,494,802 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III hereof.
WSFS FINANCIAL CORPORATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K, and exhibits hereto, contains estimates, predictions, opinions, projections and other “forward-looking statements” as that phrase is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such statements include, without limitation, references to the Company’s predictions or expectations of future business or financial performance as well as its goals and objectives for future operations, financial and business trends, business prospects and management’s outlook or expectations for earnings, revenues, expenses, capital levels, liquidity levels, asset quality or other future financial or business performance, strategies or expectations. The words “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “estimate,” “target,” “project” and similar expressions, among others, generally identify forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements are based on various assumptions (some of which may be beyond the Company’s control) and are subject to risks and uncertainties (which change over time) and other factors which could cause actual results to differ materially from those currently anticipated. Such risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to:
•difficult market conditions and unfavorable economic trends in the United States generally, and particularly in the markets in which the Company operates and in which its loans are concentrated, including possible declines in housing markets, an increase in unemployment levels and slowdowns in economic growth, including as a result of the novel coronavirus, or COVID-19, pandemic;
•possible additional loan losses and impairment of the collectability of loans, particularly as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the policies and programs implemented by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, as amended, or CARES Act, including its automatic loan forbearance provisions and the Company's Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) lending activities;
•additional credit, fraud and litigation risks associated with our PPP lending activities;
•the economic and financial impact of federal, state and local emergency orders and other actions taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic;
•the Company’s level of nonperforming assets and the costs associated with resolving problem loans including litigation and other costs and complying with government-imposed foreclosure moratoriums;
•changes in market interest rates, which may increase funding costs and reduce earning asset yields and thus reduce margin;
•the impact of changes in interest rates and the credit quality and strength of underlying collateral and the effect of such changes on the market value of the Company’s investment securities portfolio;
•the credit risk associated with the substantial amount of commercial real estate, construction and land development and commercial and industrial loans in the Company’s loan portfolio;
•the extensive federal and state regulation, supervision and examination governing almost every aspect of the Company’s operations and potential expenses associated with complying with such regulations;
•the Company’s ability to comply with applicable capital and liquidity requirements (including the effect of the transition to the Current Expected Credit Losses (CECL) methodology for allowances and related adjustments), including its ability to generate liquidity internally or raise capital on favorable terms;
•possible changes in trade, monetary and fiscal policies and stimulus programs, laws and regulations and other activities of governments, agencies, and similar organizations, and the uncertainty of the short- and long-term impacts of such changes;
•any impairments of the Company’s goodwill or other intangible assets;
•conditions in the financial markets, including the destabilized economic environment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, that may limit the Company’s access to additional funding to meet its liquidity needs;
•the intention of the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) to cease support of London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (LIBOR) and the transition to an alternative reference interest rate, such as the Secured Overnight Funding Rate (SOFR), including methodologies for calculating the rate that are different from the LIBOR methodology and changed language for existing and new floating or adjustable rate contracts;
•the success of the Company's growth plans, including its plans to grow the commercial small business leasing portfolio and residential mortgage, small business and Small Business Administration (SBA) portfolios;
•the successful integration of acquisitions;
•the Company’s ability to fully realize the cost savings and other benefits of its acquisitions, manage risks related to business disruption following those acquisitions, and post-acquisition Customer acceptance of the Company’s products and services and related Customer disintermediation;
•negative perceptions or publicity with respect to the Company generally and, in particular, the Company’s trust and wealth management business;
•failure of the financial and operational controls of the Company’s Cash Connect® division;
•adverse judgments or other resolution of pending and future legal proceedings, and cost incurred in defending such proceedings;
•the Company’s reliance on third parties for certain important functions, including the operation of its core systems, and any failures by such third parties;
•system failures or cybersecurity incidents or other breaches of the Company’s network security, particularly given widespread remote working arrangements;
•the Company’s ability to recruit and retain key Associates;
•the effects of problems encountered by other financial institutions that adversely affect the Company or the banking industry generally;
•the effects of weather and natural disasters such as floods, droughts, wind, tornadoes and hurricanes as well as effects from geopolitical instability, public health crises and man-made disasters including terrorist attacks;
•the effects of regional or national civil unrest (including any resulting branch or ATM closures or damage);
•possible changes in the speed of loan prepayments by the Company’s Customers and loan origination or sales volumes;
•possible changes in the speed of prepayments of mortgage-backed securities (MBS) due to changes in the interest rate environment, particularly as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the related acceleration of premium amortization on prepayments in the event that prepayments accelerate;
•regulatory limits on the Company’s ability to receive dividends from its subsidiaries and pay dividends to its stockholders;
•any reputation, credit, interest rate, market, operational, litigation, legal, liquidity, regulatory and compliance risk resulting from developments related to any of the risks discussed above; and
•other risks and uncertainties, including those discussed herein under the heading “Risk Factors” and in other documents filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) from time to time.
The Company cautions readers not to place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date they are made. The Company disclaims any duty to revise or update any forward-looking statement, whether written or oral, that may be made from time to time by or on behalf of the Company for any reason, except as specifically required by law.
As used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the terms “WSFS”, “the Company”, “registrant”, “we”, “us”, and “our” mean WSFS Financial Corporation and its subsidiaries, on a consolidated basis, unless the context indicates otherwise.
The following are registered trademarks of the Company: Cash Connect®, Christiana Trust Company of Delaware®, NewLane Finance®, Powdermill® Financial Solutions, West Capital Management®, WSFS Institutional Services®, WSFS Mortgage® and WSFS Wealth® Investments. Any other trademarks appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are the property of their respective holders.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
WSFS Financial Corporation (the Company or WSFS) is a savings and loan holding company headquartered in Wilmington, Delaware. Substantially all of our assets are held by the Company's subsidiary, Wilmington Savings Fund Society, FSB (WSFS Bank or the Bank), one of the ten oldest bank and trust companies in the United States (U.S.) continuously operating under the same name. With $14.3 billion in assets and $24.2 billion in assets under management (AUM) and assets under administration (AUA) at December 31, 2020, WSFS Bank is the oldest and largest locally-managed bank and trust company headquartered in the Delaware and Greater Philadelphia region. As a federal savings bank that was formerly chartered as a state mutual savings bank, WSFS Bank enjoys a broader scope of permissible activities than most other financial institutions.
A fixture in the community, WSFS Bank has been in operation for more than 189 years. In addition to its focus on stellar customer experiences, WSFS Bank has continued to fuel growth and remain a leader in our community. We are a relationship-focused, locally-managed, community banking institution. Our mission is simple: “We Stand for Service.” Our strategy of “Engaged Associates, living our culture, making a better life for all we serve” focuses on exceeding customer expectations, delivering stellar experiences and building customer advocacy through highly-trained, relationship-oriented, friendly, knowledgeable and empowered Associates. As of December 31, 2020, we service our Customers primarily from our 112 offices located in Pennsylvania (52), Delaware (42), New Jersey (16), Virginia (1) and Nevada (1), our ATM network, our website at www.wsfsbank.com and our mobile apps.
The Company has six consolidated subsidiaries: WSFS Bank, WSFS Wealth Management, LLC (Powdermill®), WSFS Capital Management, LLC (West Capital), Cypress Capital Management, LLC (Cypress), Christiana Trust Company of Delaware® (Christiana Trust DE), and WSFS SPE Services, LLC.
•Powdermill® provides multi-family office services to affluent clientele in the local community and throughout the U.S.
•West Capital provides fee-only wealth management services tailored to the needs of high net worth individuals operating under a multi-family office philosophy. West Capital had approximately $806.5 million in AUM at December 31, 2020, compared to approximately $767.8 million at December 31, 2019.
•Cypress provides asset management services. As a registered investment adviser and fee-only wealth management firm, Cypress had approximately $1.2 billion in AUM at December 31, 2020, flat compared to December 31, 2019.
•Christiana Trust DE supplements our existing Wealth Management segment by offering Delaware advantage trust services including directed trusts, asset protection trusts and dynasty trusts.
•WSFS SPE Services, LLC provides commercial domicile services which include providing employees, directors, subleases of office facilities and registered agent services in Delaware and Nevada.
WSFS Bank has three wholly owned subsidiaries: Beneficial Equipment Finance Corporation (BEFC), WSFS Investment Group, Inc. (WSFS Wealth® Investments), and 1832 Holdings, Inc. WSFS Bank has one majority-owned subsidiary, NewLane Finance®.
•BEFC was acquired during the Beneficial Bancorp, Inc. (Beneficial) acquisition and is in the business of leasing small equipment and fixed assets. Subsequent to the Beneficial acquisition, the leasing operations of BEFC were combined with NewLane Finance®, described below.
•WSFS Wealth® Investments markets various third-party investment and insurance products such as single-premium annuities, whole life policies and securities primarily through our retail banking system and directly to the public.
•1832 Holdings, Inc. was formed to hold certain debt and equity investment securities.
•NewLane Finance® originates small business leases and provides commercial financing to businesses nationwide, targeting various equipment categories including technology, software, office, medical, veterinary and other areas. In addition, NewLane Finance® offers new product offerings for insurance through a newly-formed subsidiary, Prime Protect, which commenced operations during the fourth quarter of 2020.
WSFS has one unconsolidated subsidiary, WSFS Capital Trust III (the Trust), which was formed in 2005 to issue $67.0 million aggregate principal amount of Pooled Floating Rate Capital Securities. These securities are callable and have a maturity date of June 1, 2035. The proceeds from this issue were used to fund the redemption of $51.5 million Floating Rate WSFS Capital Trust I Preferred Securities (formerly, WSFS Capital Trust I). WSFS Capital Trust I invested all of the proceeds from the sale of the Pooled Floating Rate Capital Securities in our Junior Subordinated Debentures.
For financial reporting purposes, our business has three segments: WSFS Bank, Cash Connect® and Wealth Management. The WSFS Bank segment provides loans and leases and other financial products to commercial and retail customers. Cash Connect® provides ATM vault cash, smart safe and other cash logistics services in the U.S through strategic partnerships with several of the largest networks, manufacturers and service providers in the cash logistics industry. The Wealth Management segment provides a broad array of planning and advisor services, investment management, personal and institutional trust services, and credit and deposit products to individuals, corporate, and institutional clients.
As of December 31, 2020, WSFS Bank's banking business had a total loan and lease portfolio of $9.0 billion, which is primarily commercial lending funded by customer-generated deposits. We have built a $7.1 billion commercial loan and lease portfolio by recruiting the best seasoned commercial lenders in our markets and offering the high level of service and flexibility typically associated with a community bank. We fund this business primarily with deposits generated through commercial relationships and retail deposits, as well as through our digital banking platforms.
WSFS Bank also offers a broad variety of consumer loan products, retail securities and insurance brokerage services through our retail branches, and mortgage and title services through those branches and through WSFS Mortgage®. WSFS Mortgage® is a mortgage banking company and abstract and title company specializing in a variety of residential mortgage and refinancing solutions.
Our Cash Connect® business is a premier provider of ATM vault cash, smart safe (safes that automatically accept, validate, record and hold cash in a secure environment) and other cash logistics services in the U.S. Cash Connect® manages approximately $1.6 billion in total cash and services approximately 27,900 non-bank ATMs and approximately 4,500 smart safes nationwide. Cash Connect® provides related services such as online reporting and ATM cash management, predictive cash ordering and reconcilement services, armored carrier management, loss protection, ATM processing equipment sales and deposit safe cash logistics. Cash Connect® also supports over 600 branded ATMs for WSFS Bank, which has one of the largest branded ATM networks in our market.
Our Wealth Management business provides a broad array of planning and advisory services, investment management, trust services, and credit and deposit products to individual, corporate, and institutional clients through multiple integrated businesses. Combined, these businesses had $24.2 billion of AUM and AUA at December 31, 2020. WSFS Wealth® Investments provides financial advisory services. Cypress, a registered investment adviser, is a fee-only wealth management firm managing a “balanced” investment style portfolio focused on preservation of capital and generating current income. West Capital, a registered investment adviser, is a fee-only wealth management firm operating under a multi-family office philosophy to provide customized solutions to institutions and high net worth individuals. The trust division of WSFS, comprised of WSFS Institutional Services® and Christiana Trust DE, provides personal trust and fiduciary services, as well as, trustee, agency, bankruptcy administration, custodial and commercial domicile services to corporate and institutional clients. Powdermill® is a multi-family office providing independent solutions to high-net-worth individuals, families and corporate executives through a coordinated, centralized approach. WSFS Wealth Client Management provides comprehensive solutions to high net worth clients by delivering credit and deposit products as well as partnering with other wealth management units.
For segment financial information for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, see Note 22 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in this report.
Recent Business Developments
•COVID-19 pandemic: The COVID-19 pandemic adversely affected our results of operations in 2020, and we have adapted our business operations in response to the pandemic and governmental actions in response to it.
◦During March 2020, we immediately closed all of our retail branch office lobbies, while continuing to service our Customers through our branch locations equipped with drive-thru services, in addition to our contact centers, mobile apps and www.wsfsbank.com.
◦By the second quarter of 2020, we began a phased approach to reopen our retail branch office lobbies while following the recommended Federal, State and local guidance at the direction from the CDC, State Departments of Health and other governing bodies, including appropriate personal protective equipment and social distancing, as we were servicing our Customers.
◦By the end of 2020, most of the previously closed banking locations that service our Customers had reopened while we monitored the impacts of COVID-19 and implemented short-term closures when appropriate.
During this time, the retail office closures did not significantly impact our financial condition and results of operations, as our Customer deposits remained intact based on our ability to service our Customers through our other service channels and the fees and costs associated with our Customer deposits remained under normal business operations. We also continued with a carefully planned and phased approach to opening our remaining office locations that aligns with Federal, State and local guidance. Even with the majority of non-retail office Associates working remotely, our ability to operate and execute on our strategy continues without significant disruption. For more information on the effects of the pandemic, see "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Risk Factors – Market Risks."
•Regulatory relief programs: We participated in some of the regulatory relief programs offered as a result of the CARES Act, including the PPP. In 2020, we provided nearly $1.0 billion in PPP loans to more than 5,400 new and existing WSFS Customers, which resulted in $21.7 million of additional interest income from PPP loans and $3.3 million of PPP related costs during the year ended December 31, 2020. We experienced an increase in customer deposits and liquidity due to these PPP loans and the current economic environment. In December 2020, Congress approved the next round of PPP (PPP 2.0) and the SBA began accepting PPP 2.0 applications on January 19, 2021. We are again participating in providing our business Customers the access to funding they need to bridge the gap between economic recovery and the vaccine rollout. However, unlike the first round, we will be partnering with third party providers who will accept, process and service PPP 2.0 loans. This arrangement allows us to expand our reach to more non-WSFS Customers, including those in underserved communities that struggled to gain access to PPP funds in the first round. See "Financial Condition" and "Regulation" for further details.
•Community outreach: During 2020, WSFS made a $3.0 million grant to the WSFS Community Foundation to address the impacts of COVID-19 on the communities we serve and provide long-term support for education, health and human services, and economic development in our communities. The WSFS Community Foundation and its effects on our communities provided $335,500 in grants to 25 local nonprofit organizations and schools engaged in the fight against COVID-19, and WSFS Bank provided a $200,000 donation to four community development financial institutions (CDFIs) to utilize for relief grants to help accelerate recovery efforts of local small businesses within the Bank’s footprint. Despite the challenges of the pandemic, our Associates also volunteered nearly 12,000 hours during 2020 as part of our long-standing commitment to community service. Our Associate volunteer hours supported many areas involving food banks, homeless shelters, nursing homes, assisted living, community and education centers.
Our involvement in PPP during 2020, as described above, helped to support an estimated 100,000 jobs in our region. In partnering with third party providers for the next round of PPP funding, our goal is to further expand our reach to continue to support both WSFS and non-WSFS customers, including those in underserved communities who struggled to gain access to PPP funds in the first round. WSFS also partnered with four local financial institutions to participate in a loan program, the Micro-Loan Recovery Program, which currently includes a combined commitment of $650,000 to fund small Philadelphia businesses impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Through our partnership with the other financial institutions, we are helping to address the financial needs of the small businesses throughout the city of Philadelphia with the goal of keeping these businesses open and operating.
WSFS DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGY
While most banks offer similar products and services, we believe that WSFS, through its proven service model, sets itself apart from other banks in our market and the industry in general. In addition, community banks such as WSFS have been able to distinguish themselves from large national or international banks by providing our Customers with the service levels, responsiveness and local decision making they prefer.
Our focus on this differentiation strategy supports our core franchise with a mix of organic and acquisition-related growth and builds value for our stockholders. Since December 31, 2016, our commercial loans and leases, which exclude loans held-for-sale, have grown from $3.8 billion to $7.1 billion at December 31, 2020, a 13% compound annual growth rate (CAGR). Over the same period, customer deposits have grown from $4.6 billion to $11.6 billion, a 20% CAGR. For further details, refer to the Comparative Stock Performance Graph in Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
The following factors summarize what we believe is our differentiation strategy:
We Stand for Service® is our mission and our daily call to action. Since 1832, WSFS has been a service-oriented, locally managed community banking institution serving Delaware Valley families and businesses. We strive to meet our Customers’ evolving banking needs and to exceed their expectations each and every day.
Our values address integrity, service, accountability, transparency, honesty, growth and desire to improve. They are the core of our culture, they make us who we are and we live them every day.
At WSFS, we:
•Do the right thing
•Are welcoming, open and candid
•Grow and improve
Our business model is designed using the science of Human Sigma, which is built on a foundation of engagement. The Human Sigma model, identified by Gallup, Inc., begins with Associates (employees) who take ownership for their responsibilities and impact; as such, they are more likely to consistently perform at a higher level. We significantly invest in our culture of engagement which underpins all that we do at WSFS, including attracting, motivating and retaining our Associates, delivering stellar Customer experiences and strengthening the well-being of our communities. Our culture is based on the fundamental principal of “a really good life.” Our strategy, “Engaged Associates, living our culture, making a better life for all we serve” builds upon that principal.
Our strategy in action starts a virtuous cycle whereby, as we do better, our community does better and as our community does better, we do better. It’s a simple premise that plays out in a big way every day. Research studies validate the direct link between engagement and a company’s financial performance. Our strategy, which triggers our virtuous cycle, ensures that research and reinforces our culture that is evidenced in our Company results.
At December 31, 2020, we had 1,838 full-time equivalent Associates. Our Associates are not represented by a collective bargaining unit and we believe our relationship with our Associates is strong.
During 2020, WSFS captured the voice of our Associates and our Customers through multiple channels, including our ongoing partnership with Gallup Inc. (Gallup). During this pivotal year with the continued onboarding of former Beneficial customers and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we continued to use these tools to measure our Associate and Customer engagement.
Surveys conducted for us by Gallup indicate that, in 2020:
•Our Associate engagement survey results placed WSFS in the 94th percentile of Gallup's overall company-level database. Our Associate engagement ratio was 13.4:1, which means there were 13.4 engaged Associates for every actively disengaged Associate. This compares to a U.S. working population ratio of 2.7:1.
•Our Customer engagement survey results reflected that 60% of Customers polled ranked WSFS a “five” out of five, strongly agreeing with the statement “WSFS is the perfect bank for people like me.” Our Customer engagement ratio was 5.4:1, which means there were 5.4 engaged Customers for every actively disengaged Customer.
•Customer loyalty grew during the year, as measured by our Net Promoter Scores (NPS). Our branch network achieved an overall NPS of 72.3 in 2020, with the fourth quarter of 2020 resulting in the highest quarter performance since program inception. Surveys are conducted utilizing Medallia.
By fostering a culture of engaged and empowered Associates, we believe we have become the employer and bank of choice in our market. In 2020, we were honored to receive the following accolades:
•Ranked #21 in the United States on the Forbes World’s Best Banks Listing;
•Selected as one of only two companies nationwide to receive the Gallup Culture Transformation Award in its inaugural year;
•Named a Top Workplace in Delaware for the 15th year in a row, and the second consecutive year in first place;
•Named a Top Workplace in Philadelphia and southeastern PA for the sixth year in a row;
•Named to the 'Soaring 76', recognizing us as one of the 76 fastest growing companies in the greater Philadelphia region for the fourth year in a row by the Philadelphia Business Journal; and
•Ranked 4th Best Overall Bank in Bank Director's 2021 RankingBanking study, while placing first in the Best Board and Best Technology Strategy categories.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DE&I) is supported by the values of WSFS. In 2020, as a commitment to those values, we launched our DE&I Initiative to continue to assess diversity, equity and inclusion with respect to WSFS and our interactions in and with the communities we serve. In support of the DE&I Initiative, WSFS formed an advisory group of 16 Associates representing all of the divisions of the Company. The advisory group works alongside an assembled group of division advocates of over 40 Associates to maintain open lines of communication with our Associates to help generate ideas and vet concepts in furtherance of the DE&I Initiative's goals.
During 2020, we began a search to hire a director of DE&I, who will focus on supporting, managing and implementing diversity and inclusion strategies and programs, and create and deliver initiatives designed to sustain a culture of inclusion.
Community Banking Model
Our size and community banking model play a key role in our success. Our approach to business combines a service-oriented culture with a full complement of products and services, all aimed at meeting the needs of our retail, business and wealth Customers. We believe the essence of being a community bank means that we are:
•Small enough to offer Customers responsive, personalized service and direct access to decision makers, yet
•Large enough to provide the products, services and balance sheet lending capacity needed by our target market Customers.
As the financial services industry has consolidated, many independent banks have been acquired by national companies that have centralized their decision-making authority and focused their product offerings on a regional or even national customer base. As a result, many of these banks have lost the deep knowledge of the local markets expected by our Customer base. We believe this trend has underserved small and medium size business owners who have become accustomed to dealing directly with their bank’s senior executives, discouraged retail customers who often experience deteriorating levels of service in branches and other service outlets, and resulted in less empowered bank employees who are less engaged to provide good and timely service to their customers.
We have created the largest, premier, locally-headquartered community bank in the Delaware and greater Philadelphia region, offering the benefits of local market knowledge and decision-making, a full-service product suite, the balance sheet to compete with larger regional and national banks, and most importantly, a culture of engaged Associates that bring to life WSFS’ mission of We Stand For Service in our daily delivery of stellar Customer experiences.
WSFS Bank offers:
•One primary point of contact: Each of our relationship managers is responsible for understanding his or her Customers’ needs and bringing together the right resources in WSFS Bank to meet those needs.
•A customized approach to serving our Customers: We believe that this gives us an advantage over our competitors who are too large or centralized to offer customized products or services.
•Products and services that our Customers value: This includes a broad array of banking, cash management and trust and wealth management products, as well as a legal lending limit high enough to meet the credit needs of our Customers, especially as they grow.
•Rapid response and a company that is easy to do business with: Our Customers tell us this is an important differentiator from larger, in-market competitors.
Our community banking model continues to be a key differentiating point and drove our response in assisting our Customers and the communities we serve and who have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. This was reflected in our active involvement in many relief programs in our community, such as PPP, our payment deferral programs, the Micro-Loan Recovery Program, and grants to the WSFS Community Foundation in support of various outreach programs in our communities to provide long-term support for education, health and human services, and economic development.
Our Diversified Business
Balance Sheet Management
We put a great deal of focus on actively managing our balance sheet. This manifests itself in:
•Prudent capital levels - Maintaining prudent capital levels is key to our operating philosophy. At December 31, 2020 all regulatory capital levels for WSFS Bank and the Company were in excess of "well-capitalized" levels. For the capital position of WSFS Bank and the Company, refer to Note 14 of the Consolidated Financial Statements. At December 31, 2020, the Company's common equity to assets ratio was 12.50% and its tangible common equity to tangible assets ratio, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, was 8.96%. For a reconciliation of tangible common equity and tangible assets to net income and total assets, the most comparable measures in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), refer to “Reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures included in Item 1” located at the end of this section.
•Disciplined lending - We maintain discipline in our lending with a particular focus on portfolio diversification and granularity. Diversification includes limits on loans to one borrower as well as industry and product concentrations. We supplement this portfolio diversification with a disciplined underwriting process and the benefit of knowing our customers. We have also taken a proactive approach to identifying trends in our local economy and have responded to areas of concern.
•Focus on credit quality - We seek to control credit risk in our investment portfolio and use this portion of our balance sheet primarily to help us manage liquidity and interest rate risk, while providing marginal income and tax relief. Our philosophy and pre-purchase due diligence has allowed us to avoid the significant investment write-downs in the current economic climate.
•Asset/liability management strategies - Our investment portfolio is consistent with the approved risk appetite of our Board of Directors. We work to optimize duration, yield and liquidity and to minimize credit risk within policy guidelines. The concentration in agency MBS (96% of investment portfolio) and bank qualified municipal bonds (4% of investment portfolio) provides liquidity, yield and credit to meet the intended risk profile.
Disciplined Capital Management
We understand that our capital (or stockholders’ equity) belongs to our stockholders. They have entrusted this capital to us with the expectation that it will earn an appropriate return relative to the risks we take. Mindful of this balance, we prudently, but aggressively, manage our capital. We continue to execute our current Board-approved share repurchase plan, as well as any future Board-approved share repurchase plans, including opportunistically repurchasing shares, based on current valuation levels, above our stated practice of returning a minimum of 25% of annual net income to stockholders through dividends and share repurchases.
Performance Expectations and Alignment with Stockholder Priorities
We are focused on high-performing, long-term financial goals. We define “high-performing” as the top quintile of a relevant peer group in return on assets (ROA). Management incentives are, in large part, based on driving performance of ROA as well as return on average tangible common equity (ROTCE) and EPS growth. More details on management incentive plans will be included in the proxy statement for our 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, WSFS reported ROA of 0.87%. Core ROA, which excludes non-core items and is a non-GAAP financial measure, was 0.74% for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Core ROA for 2020 excludes (i) securities gains, (ii) realized and unrealized gains on equity investments, net, (iii) corporate development and restructuring expense, (iv) loss on early extinguishment of debt, and (v) contribution to WSFS Community Foundation. For a reconciliation of Core ROA to ROA, the most comparable GAAP measure, refer to “Reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures included in Item 1” located at the end of this section.
We have achieved success over the long-term in lending and deposit gathering, growing the Wealth Management segment’s client base and growing Cash Connect®’s customer base and services. Our success has been the result of a focused strategy that provides service, responsiveness and careful execution in a consolidating marketplace.
We plan to continue to grow by:
•Developing talented, service-minded Associates: We have successfully recruited Associates with strong ties to, and the passion to serve, their communities to enhance our service in existing markets and to provide a strong start in new communities. We also focus on developing talent and leadership from our current Associate base to better equip those Associates for their jobs and prepare them for leadership roles at WSFS. During 2020, the following key Associate and Board updates occurred:
◦Michael P. Reed, joined as Executive Vice President, Chief Risk Officer;
◦Michael L. Conklin, joined as Executive Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer;
◦Peggy H. Eddens, will be retiring at the end of 2021, and has transitioned to Executive Vice President, Chief Customer Officer; and
◦Nancy J. Foster, was appointed to the WSFS Board of Directors.
•Embracing the Human Sigma concept: We are committed to building Associate Engagement and Customer Advocacy as a way to differentiate ourselves and grow our franchise.
•Building fee income through investment in and growth of our Wealth Management and Cash Connect® segments.
◦Wealth Management experienced record growth during 2020 in AUM and corresponding AUM-based revenues largely due to market performance. WSFS Institutional Services® ended 2020 as the securitization industry's sixth most active trustee for U.S. Asset and Mortgage Backed Securities according to Asset-Backed Alert’s ABS Database.
◦Cash Connect®, in partnership with our retail strategy, expanded its WSFS branded ATM network by adding over 150 ATMs during 2020 to serve Delaware and the Greater Philadelphia region. The number of owned and branded ATMs increased to 626 as of December 31, 2020.
•Continuing strong growth in commercial and retail lending by:
◦Offering local decision-making by seasoned banking professionals with significant local market experience.
◦Executing our community banking model that combines stellar experiences with the banking products and services our business customers demand.
◦Continuing to expand our NewLane Finance® leasing business, including an insurance product through a newly formed subsidiary, Prime Protect, as described above.
◦Adding seasoned lending professionals that have helped us win customers in our Delaware, southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey markets, which contributes to our expanding commercial small business leasing portfolio and residential mortgage, small business and SBA portfolios in the footprint we operate. In the past 12 months, we expanded our Commercial and Small Business Banking teams in the Greater Philadelphia region with the addition of nine experienced relationship managers.
•Continuing to grow deposits by:
◦Offering products through an expanded and updated branch network, increasing our market presence in Philadelphia, southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey.
◦Providing a stellar experience to our Customers.
◦Further expanding our commercial Customer relationships with deposit and cash management products.
◦Finding creative ways to build deposit market share such as targeted marketing programs.
•Continuing investment in our Delivery Transformation initiative (described in greater detail below) to increase adoption and usage of digital channels aligned with our strategy by:
◦Improving branch NPS scores and expanding NPS surveys to our contact center.
◦Providing a deeper adoption of myWSFS to provide a personalize mobile experience.
◦Deploying Medallia for real-time customer feedback from our branches and contact center.
◦Expanding DocuSign capabilities to improve turnaround time and document retention across the Company.
◦Executing multichannel target marketing campaigns with our Customers.
◦Implementing Salesforce to support our customer relationship management with focus on change management, adoption and governance.
•Seeking strategic acquisitions over the next several years, as we expect our growth to continue to be a mix of organic and acquisition-related growth, consistent with our long-term strategy.
Disciplined Cost Management
We maintain a disciplined cost management strategy while continuing to make prudent investments in our businesses through the lens of our Strategic Plan. This was evident in management's execution of the cost synergies and branch optimization plan following the acquisition of Beneficial. Further, we have experienced and continue to anticipate increased costs as a result of our previously announced Delivery Transformation initiative and investment in marketing technology, fully supported by business cases indicating strong return on investment, and driving our future growth.
Our organization is committed to product and service innovation as a means to drive growth and to stay ahead of changing customer demands and emerging competition. We are focused on developing and maintaining a strong “culture of innovation” that solicits, captures, prioritizes and executes innovation initiatives, including feedback from our customers, as well as leveraging technology from product creation to process improvements. Cash Connect®, a premier provider of ATM vault cash, smart safe and other cash logistics services in the U.S., serves as an innovation engine by driving enhancements such as mobile phone cash withdrawals from WSFS ATMs, and has developed best-in-class cash logistics and reconciliation software. WSFS Institutional Services®, which offers owner and indenture trustee services for asset-backed securities, custody, escrow, verification agent services as well as numerous other services, has partnered with several technology firms and fintechs to enhance and expand our client offerings. These innovations have created internal efficiencies and valued services for our local banking customers, institutional clients and merchants across the nation. We intend to continue to leverage technology and innovation to grow our business and to successfully execute on our strategy.
In 2019, we embarked on a multi-year Delivery Transformation initiative focused on melding our physical and digital delivery, consistent with our brand, by enabling our Associates with the latest technology and actionable data to better serve our Customers. Industry and customer behavior trends continue to shift as observed in reduced branch traffic and increased mobile adoption. As such, we have concluded that we need to transform our delivery channels to meet these new expectations. As we continue to make progress on our 2019-2021 Strategic Plan, we have accelerated our transformation by optimizing our physical branch network and making strategic investments in meaningful technology solutions, supported by specialized talent. Those investments are expected to provide our Customers with leading edge products and elevate our Associates, as they strive to serve in a competitive and compelling way. We are designing and integrating solutions to provide personalized experiences to our Customers, while retaining the essence of what makes WSFS great. Through our Delivery Transformation and our ongoing commitment to Stellar Service, we intend to continue to lead the community and regional banking industry with regards to service delivery and Customer experience.
We have formed several strategic alliances and investments, which have allowed us to stay at the forefront of emerging technology in our industry. Through these partnerships, we look forward to offering and supporting even more innovative products to the financial services marketplace, continuing our organizational learning in this fast-developing space, and participating in value creation for our stockholders.
Enterprise Risk Management
We manage our risks through our Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) program administered by the Chief Risk Officer (CRO) and ERM department. Our stand-alone ERM department is separate from our lines of business. Formal Risk Appetite Statements have been developed for each risk category throughout the institution; these statements are reviewed and approved by the Board annually. From a regulatory perspective, our ERM program is evaluated as part of the regular Safety and Soundness examination by the OCC.
Key Risk Indicators (KRI’s) or Risk metrics are continually monitored in relation to risk appetite though a Risk Assessment Summary (RAS) dashboard. Each KRI has an assigned quantitative tolerance level which considers our overall risk appetite, regulatory requirements, the bank’s peer group statistics, best practices, and general industry guidelines. As part of our ERM program, approximately 90 KRIs are monitored company-wide. In the event that risk levels exceed our defined risk appetite, management action is required.
The CRO and the ERM department conduct meetings with management of respective business lines and support areas to discuss and gather information for ERM reporting. ERM reporting is also provided to the Board of Directors quarterly. In addition, our Management Risk Committee (MRC), which meets each quarter, provides management governance and oversight of the Company's risk management program on an enterprise-wide basis, and includes members of the Company's executive and senior management teams.
Our primary market is Delaware and the Greater Philadelphia region, including southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey. This market benefits from an urban concentration as well as from a unique political, legal, tax and business environment. The following table shows key demographics for our markets compared to the national average.
|(Most recent available statistics)||Delaware|
Southern New Jersey (2)
Unemployment (For November 2020) (3) (4) (5)
Median Household Income (2015-2019) (6)
Population Growth (2010-2019) (7)
(1)Comprised of Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, and Philadelphia Counties
(2)Comprised of Burlington and Camden Counties
(3)Bureau of Labor Statistics - Delaware and National unemployment rates are as of November 2020, seasonally adjusted
(4)Bureau of Labor Statistics - Southeastern Pennsylvania unemployment rate is a simple average of the November 2020 not seasonally adjusted unemployment rates for Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, and Philadelphia Counties
(5)Bureau of Labor Statistics - Southern New Jersey unemployment rate is a simple average of the November 2020 not seasonally adjusted unemployment rates for Burlington and Camden Counties
(6)U.S. Census Bureau - Quick Facts 2015 - 2019
(7)U.S. Census Bureau - Quick Facts 2010 - 2019
DISTRIBUTION OF ASSETS, LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Condensed average balance sheets for each of the last two years and analyses of net interest income and changes in net interest income due to changes in volume and rate are presented in “Results of Operations” included in the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
CREDIT EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
Over the past several years we have focused on growing the more profitable, relationship-oriented segments of our loan portfolio. Our current portfolio lending activity is concentrated on small- to mid-sized businesses in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S., primarily in Delaware, southeastern Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey, Maryland and northern Virginia. Based on current market conditions, we expect our focus on growing commercial and industrial loans and other relationship-based commercial loans to continue during the remainder of 2021 and beyond.
The following table shows the composition of our loan and lease portfolio at year-end for the last five years:
| ||At December 31,|
|(Dollars in thousands)|
|Types of Loans|
Commercial and industrial (2)
|$||2,700,418 ||30.7 ||%||$||2,046,798 ||24.3 ||%||$||1,472,489 ||30.3 ||%||$||1,464,554 ||30.7 ||%||$||1,287,731 ||29.0 ||%|
|Owner-occupied commercial||1,332,727 ||15.2 ||1,296,466 ||15.4 ||1,059,974 ||21.8 ||1,079,247 ||22.6 ||1,078,162 ||24.3 |
|Commercial mortgages||2,086,062 ||23.7 ||2,222,976 ||26.4 ||1,162,739 ||23.9 ||1,187,705 ||24.9 ||1,163,554 ||26.2 |
|Construction||716,275 ||8.1 ||581,082 ||6.9 ||316,566 ||6.5 ||281,608 ||5.9 ||222,712 ||5.0 |
|Commercial small business leases||248,885 ||2.8 ||188,630 ||2.2 ||— ||— ||— ||— ||— ||— |
|774,455 ||8.8 ||1,016,500 ||12.1 ||218,099 ||4.5 ||253,301 ||5.3 ||289,611 ||6.5 |
|Consumer||1,165,917 ||13.3 ||1,128,731 ||13.4 ||680,939 ||14.0 ||558,493 ||11.7 ||450,029 ||10.1 |
|Gross loans and leases||9,024,739 ||102.6 ||8,481,183 ||100.7 ||4,910,806 ||101.0 ||4,824,908 ||101.1 ||4,491,799 ||101.1 |
|Deferred fees (unearned income)||— ||— ||9,143 ||0.1 ||7,348 ||0.2 ||7,991 ||0.2 ||7,673 ||0.2 |
|Allowance for credit losses||228,804 ||2.6 ||47,576 ||0.6 ||39,539 ||0.8 ||40,599 ||0.9 ||39,751 ||0.9 |
Net loans and leases (4)
|$||8,795,935 ||100.0 ||%||$||8,424,464 ||100.0 ||%||$||4,863,919 ||100.0 ||%||$||4,776,318 ||100.0 ||%||$||4,444,375 ||100.0 ||%|
(1)Includes the impact of our adoption of CECL on January 1, 2020.
(2)Commercial and industrial loans include $751.2 million of PPP loans at December 31, 2020.
(3)Includes reverse mortgages, at fair value of $10.1 million, $16.6 million, $16.5 million, $19.8 million, and $22.6 million at December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively.
(4)Excludes $197.5 million, $83.9 million, $25.3 million, $31.1 million, and $54.8 million of commercial and industrial loans and residential mortgage loans held for sale at December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively.
The following tables show our loan portfolio by remaining contractual maturity as of December 31, 2020. The first table details the total loan portfolio by type of loan. The second table details the total loan portfolio by those with fixed interest rates and those with adjustable interest rates. Loans may be pre-paid, so the actual maturity may differ from the contractual maturity. Prepayments tend to be highly dependent upon the interest rate environment. Loans having no stated maturity or repayment schedule are reported in the "Less than One Year" category.
|(Dollars in thousands)|
|Over Five Years||Total|
|Commercial and industrial loans ||$||213,970 ||$||1,836,619 ||$||649,829 ||$||2,700,418 |
|Commercial owner-occupied loans||18,010 ||432,568 ||882,149 ||1,332,727 |
|Commercial mortgage loans||25,273 ||1,106,516 ||954,273 ||2,086,062 |
|Construction loans||6,497 ||542,553 ||167,225 ||716,275 |
|Commercial small business leases||10 ||212,886 ||35,989 ||248,885 |
Residential loans (1)
|1,776 ||24,468 ||738,149 ||764,393 |
|Consumer loans||11,760 ||82,938 ||1,071,219 ||1,165,917 |
|Total gross loans and leases||$||277,296 ||$||4,238,548 ||$||4,498,833 ||$||9,014,677 |
|Fixed||$||17,367 ||$||2,362,302 ||$||2,533,542 ||$||4,913,211 |
|259,929 ||1,876,246 ||1,965,291 ||4,101,466 |
|Total gross loans and leases||$||277,296 ||$||4,238,548 ||$||4,498,833 ||$||9,014,677 |
(1) Excludes reverse mortgages at fair value of $10.1 million.
(2) Includes hybrid adjustable-rate mortgages.
Pursuant to section 5(c) of the Home Owners’ Loan Act (HOLA), federal savings banks are generally permitted to invest up to 400% of their total regulatory capital in nonresidential real estate loans and up to 20% of their assets in commercial loans, but no more than 10% may be in loans that do not qualify as small business loans. As a federal savings bank that was formerly chartered as a Delaware savings bank, the Bank has certain additional lending authority.
Commercial, commercial owner-occupied, commercial mortgage and construction loans have higher levels of risk than residential mortgage lending. These loans typically involve larger loan balances concentrated with single borrowers or groups of related borrowers. In addition, the payment experience on loans secured by income-producing properties is typically dependent on the successful operation of the related real estate project and may be more subject to adverse conditions in the commercial real estate market or in the general economy than residential mortgage loans. The majority of our commercial and commercial real estate loans are concentrated in Delaware and Pennsylvania.
We offer commercial real estate mortgage loans on multi-family properties and on other commercial real estate. Generally, loan-to-value ratios for these loans do not exceed 80% of appraised value at origination.
Our commercial mortgage portfolio was $2.1 billion at December 31, 2020. Generally, this portfolio is diversified by property type, with no type representing more than 32% of the portfolio. The largest type is retail-related (non-mall, neighborhood shopping centers and other retail) with balances of $667.6 million at December 31, 2020. The average size of a loan in the commercial mortgage portfolio is $0.8 million and only 13 loans are greater than $12.0 million, with one loan greater than $24.0 million.
We offer commercial construction loans to developers. In some cases these loans are made as “construction/permanent” loans, which provides for disbursement of loan funds during construction with the option of conversion to mini-permanent loans (one - five years) upon completion of construction. These construction loans are short-term, usually not exceeding two years, with interest rates generally indexed to our WSFS prime rate, the “Wall Street” prime rate or LIBOR, and are adjusted periodically as these indices change. The loan appraisal process includes the same evaluation criteria as required for permanent mortgage loans, but also takes into consideration: completed plans, specifications, comparables and cost estimates. Prior to approval of each loan, these criteria are used as a basis to determine the appraised value of the subject property when completed. Our policy requires that all appraisals be reviewed independently from our commercial business development staff. At origination, the loan-to-value ratios for construction loans generally do not exceed 75%. The initial interest rate on the permanent portion of the financing is determined by the prevailing market rate at the time of conversion to the permanent loan. At December 31, 2020, $1.1 billion was committed for construction loans, of which $716.3 million was outstanding. The residential construction and land development (CLD) portfolio represented $331.4 million, or 4%, of total loans and 22% of Tier 1 capital (Tier 1 + ACL), and the commercial CLD portfolio represented $275.4 million, or 3%, of total loans. These portfolios include $25.4 million of “land hold” loans, which are land loans not currently being developed, at December 31, 2020.
Commercial and industrial and owner-occupied commercial loans include loans for working capital, financing equipment and real estate acquisitions, business expansion and other business purposes. These relationships generally range in amounts of up to $45.0 million with an average loan balance in the portfolio of $0.3 million (excluding PPP loans), and terms ranging from less than one year to ten years. The loans generally carry variable interest rates indexed to our WSFS prime rate, “Wall Street” prime rate or LIBOR. At December 31, 2020, our commercial and industrial and owner-occupied commercial loan portfolios were $4.0 billion and represented 46% of our total loan and lease portfolio. These loans are diversified by industry, with no industry representing more than 17% of the portfolio. During 2020, we participated in certain regulatory relief programs under the CARES Act, which include the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP). At December 31, 2020, we had $751.2 million in PPP loans.
Federal law limits the Bank’s extensions of credit to any one borrower to 15% of our unimpaired capital (approximately $226.8 million), and an additional 10% if the additional extensions of credit are secured by readily marketable collateral. Extensions of credit include outstanding loans as well as contractual commitments to advance funds, such as standby letters of credit. At December 31, 2020, no borrower had collective (relationship) total extensions of credit exceeding these legal lending limits. Our internal "House Limit" to any one borrowing relationship is $70.0 million.
Small business and middle market commercial loans that include specialty-lending products, including small business leases and SBA loans, comprise the remainder of our commercial portfolio. Our small business and SBA loans include loan exposures up to $1.5 million and $5.0 million, respectively.
Our commercial small business leases generated through NewLane Finance Company finance critical equipment through advanced technologies, a customer-centric approach and transparent business lending practices. The commercial small business leases portfolio was $248.9 million at December 31, 2020. These leases included initial average deal sizes of approximately $30 thousand, with yields ranging from 4% to 29% and initial maturity terms of 12 to 72 months.
Generally, we originate held-for-sale residential first mortgage loans with loan-to-value ratios of up to 90% and require private mortgage insurance or government guarantee for up to 35% of the mortgage amount for mortgage loans with loan-to-value ratios exceeding 80%. On a very limited basis, we have originated or purchased loans with loan-to-value ratios exceeding 80% without a private mortgage insurance requirement or government guarantee. At December 31, 2020, the balance of all such loans was approximately $57.9 million.
Our residential mortgage loans generally are underwritten and documented in accordance with standard underwriting criteria published by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Federal Housing Agency, Veterans Administration, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and other secondary market participants to assure maximum eligibility for subsequent sale in the secondary market.
To protect the propriety of our liens, we require borrowers to provide title insurance. We also require fire, extended coverage casualty and flood insurance (where applicable) for properties securing residential loans. All properties securing our residential loans are appraised by independent, licensed and certified appraisers and are subject to review in accordance with our standards.
The majority of our adjustable-rate, residential loans have interest rates that adjust yearly after an initial period. The change in rate for the first adjustment date could be higher than the typical limited rate change of two percentage points at each subsequent adjustment date. Adjustments are generally based upon a margin (ranging from 2.25% to 2.75%) over the weekly average yield on U.S. Treasury securities adjusted to a constant maturity, as published by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the Federal Reserve).
Usually, the maximum rate on these loans is five percent above the initial interest rate. We underwrite adjustable-rate loans under standards consistent with private mortgage insurance and secondary market underwriting criteria. We do not originate adjustable-rate mortgages with payment limitations that could produce negative amortization.
The adjustable-rate mortgage loans in our loan portfolio help mitigate the risk related to our exposure to changes in interest rates. However, there are unquantifiable credit risks resulting from potential increased costs to the borrower as a result of re-pricing adjustable-rate mortgage loans. During periods of rising interest rates, the risk of default on adjustable-rate mortgage loans may increase due to the upward adjustment of interest costs to the borrower. Further, although adjustable-rate mortgage loans allow us to increase the sensitivity of our asset base to changes in interest rates, the extent of this interest sensitivity is limited by the periodic and lifetime interest rate adjustment limitations. Accordingly, yields on our adjustable-rate mortgages may not adjust sufficiently to compensate for increases to our cost of funds during periods of extreme interest rate increases.
The original contractual loan payment period for residential loans is normally 10 to 30 years. Because borrowers may refinance or prepay their loans without penalty, these loans tend to remain outstanding for a substantially shorter period of time. First mortgage loans customarily include “due-on-sale” clauses. This provision gives us the right to declare a loan immediately due and payable in the event the borrower sells or otherwise disposes of the real property subject to the mortgage. We enforce due-on-sale clauses through foreclosure and other legal proceedings to the extent available under applicable laws.
In general, loans are sold without recourse except for the repurchase right arising from standard contract provisions covering violation of representations and warranties or, under certain investor contracts, a default by the borrower on the first payment. We also have limited recourse exposure under certain investor contracts in the event a borrower prepays a loan in total within a specified period after sale, typically 120 days. The recourse is limited to a pro rata portion of the premium paid by the investor for that loan, less any prepayment penalty collectible from the borrower. There were no repurchases in 2020, one repurchase in 2019 with minimal impact, and no repurchases in 2018.
Our primary consumer credit products (excluding first mortgage loans) are home equity lines of credit and installment loans. At December 31, 2020, home equity lines of credit outstanding totaled $348.7 million and installment loans totaled $552.7 million. In total, these product lines represented approximately 78% of total consumer loans. Typically, maximum loan to value (LTV) limits are 85% for primary residences and 70% for all other properties. At December 31, 2020, we had $866.1 million in total commitments for home equity lines of credit. Home equity lines of credit offer customers the convenience of checkbook and debit card access, and revolving credit features for a portion of the life of the loan and typically are more attractive in a low interest rate environment. Home equity lines of credit expose us to the risk that falling collateral values may leave us inadequately secured. This credit risk is mitigated by our underwriting standards and limit on the combined LTV on residences with a value greater than $750 thousand.
We purchase certain second-lien home equity installment loans through our partnership with Spring EQ, LLC (Spring EQ). These select loans meet or exceed our current underwriting standards and are similar to home equity loans originated through our branch network. We have student loans through our partnership with LendKey Technologies Inc. (LendKey). LendKey student loans are primarily to consolidate existing student debt and are also underwritten in accordance with our current credit standards. The student loans portfolio also includes loans acquired from Beneficial, which are U.S. government guaranteed with little risk of credit loss.
The following table shows the composition of our consumer loan portfolio at year-end for the last five years:
| ||At December 31,|
|(Dollars in thousands)||Amount||Percent||Amount||Percent||Amount||Percent||Amount||Percent||Amount||Percent|
|Home equity lines of credit||$||348,715 ||30 ||%||$||370,504 ||33 ||%||$||286,271 ||42 ||%||$||295,525 ||53 ||%||$||295,211 ||66 ||%|
Installment Loans - Other(2)
|552,685 ||48 ||469,013 ||42 ||259,574 ||38 ||174,360 ||31 ||99,366 ||22 |
|Unsecured lines of credit||26,773 ||2 ||26,536 ||2 ||23,174 ||3 ||16,505 ||3 ||12,520 ||3 |
|Education loans||237,744 ||20 ||262,678 ||23 ||111,920 ||17 ||72,103 ||13 ||42,932 ||9 |
|Total consumer loans||$||1,165,917 ||100 ||%||$||1,128,731 ||100 ||%||$||680,939 ||100 ||%||$||558,493 ||100 ||%||$||450,029 ||100 ||%|
(1)Includes the impact of our adoption of CECL on January 1, 2020.
(2)Includes equity-secured installment loans, personal and other loans.
Loan Originations, Purchases and Sales
We engage in traditional lending activities primarily in Delaware, southeastern Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey, and contiguous areas of neighboring states. As a federal savings bank, however, we may originate, purchase and sell loans throughout the U.S. We purchase loans from outside our traditional lending area through our relationships with Spring EQ and LendKey, when such purchases are deemed appropriate. We originate fixed-rate and adjustable-rate residential loans through our banking offices and WSFS Mortgage®, our mortgage banking company.
Commercial: We originate commercial real estate and commercial loans through our commercial lending division and SBA loan program. Commercial loans are made for working capital, financing equipment acquisitions, business expansion and other business purposes. During 2020, we originated $2.8 billion of commercial and commercial real estate loan exposures (including nearly $1.0 billion of PPP loans) compared to $1.6 billion in 2019. To reduce our exposure on certain types of these loans, and/or to maintain relationships within internal lending limits, at times we will sell a portion of our commercial loan portfolio, typically through loan participations. Commercial loan sales totaled $159.3 million and $21.9 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively. These amounts represent gross contract amounts and do not necessarily reflect amounts outstanding on those loans. We also periodically buy loan participations from other banks. Commercial loan participation purchases totaled $93.4 million and $56.9 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Any significant modification or additional exposure to one borrowing relationship exceeding $7.5 million must be approved by the Loan Committee. Any additional exposure to one borrowing relationship exceeding $25.0 million must be approved by the Senior Loan Committee. During 2020, we adopted interim underwriting guidelines to help us manage our credit exposures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Executive and Risk Committee of the Board of Directors reviews the minutes of the Loan Committee and Senior Loan Committee meetings. The Executive and Risk Committee also approves new credit exposures exceeding $20.0 million and new credit exposures in excess of $10.0 million with two or more Tier 1 policy exceptions. Depending upon their experience and management position, individual officers of the Bank have the authority to approve smaller loan amounts. Our credit policy includes a “House Limit” to any one borrowing relationship, which increased from $40.0 million to $70.0 million in March 2019 in connection with the Beneficial acquisition, consistent with overall growth in capital and the size of our loan portfolio. In rare circumstances, we will approve exceptions to the “House Limit.” Our policy allows for only 10 such relationships with an aggregate exposure of 10% of Tier 1 Capital plus ACL. At December 31, 2020, one C&I relationship exceeded the $70.0 million “House Limit.” The loans in this relationship were performing in accordance with their original terms at December 31, 2020.
Residential and Consumer: During 2020, we originated $929.7 million of residential loans, an increase compared to $438.1 million in 2019 as a result of the lower interest rate environment and increased volume during the COVID-19 pandemic. From time to time, we have purchased whole loans and loan participations in accordance with our ongoing asset and liability management objectives. There were $6.5 million of purchases in 2019 related to our Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) obligations. There were no such purchases in 2020. We sell most newly originated mortgage loans in the secondary market to generate fee income, to control the interest rate sensitivity of our balance sheet and to manage overall balance sheet mix. Residential loan sales totaled $798.9 million in 2020 and $375.2 million in 2019. We hold certain fixed-rate mortgage loans for investment, consistent with our current asset/liability management strategies and our relationship-based lending philosophy.
At December 31, 2020, we serviced $132.4 million of residential first mortgage loans and reverse mortgage loans for others, compared to $165.7 million at December 31, 2019. We also serviced residential first mortgage loans and reverse mortgage loans for our own portfolio totaling $0.8 billion and $1.0 billion at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Our consumer lending activity is conducted through our branch offices, our partnerships with Spring EQ and LendKey and referrals from other parts of our business. We originate a variety of consumer credit products including home improvement loans, home equity lines of credit, automobile loans, unsecured lines of credit and other secured and unsecured personal installment loans. We offer government-insured reverse mortgages to our customers. These loans do not close in our name and we process them as a reverse mortgage broker. During 2020 and 2019, we originated $1.0 million and $0.6 million in reverse mortgages, respectively.
Fee Income from Lending Activities
We earn fee income from lending activities, including fees for originating loans, servicing loans and selling loans and loan participations. We also receive fee income for making commitments to originate construction, residential and commercial real estate loans. Additionally, we collect fees related to existing loans which include prepayment charges, late charges, assumption fees and interest rate swap fees. As part of the loan application process, the borrower also may pay us for out-of-pocket costs to review the application, whether or not the loan is closed.
Most loan fees are not recognized in our Consolidated Statements of Income immediately, but are deferred as adjustments to yield in accordance with GAAP, and are reflected in interest income over the expected life of the loan. Those fees represented interest income of $23.5 million, $7.1 million and $5.5 million during 2020, 2019 and 2018 respectively. Loan fee income was mainly due to fee accretion on new and existing loans (including the acceleration of the accretion on loans that paid early), loan growth and prepayment penalties. The increase in loan fee income was concentrated in commercial and industrial due to $15.6 million in fees earned on PPP loans.
LOAN LOSS EXPERIENCE, PROBLEM ASSETS AND DELINQUENCIES
Our results of operations can be negatively impacted by nonperforming assets, which include nonaccruing loans, other real estate owned and restructured loans. Nonaccruing loans are those on which the accrual of interest has ceased. Loans are placed on nonaccrual status immediately if, in our opinion, collection is doubtful, or when principal or interest is past due 90 days and collateral is insufficient to cover principal and interest payments. Interest accrued, but not collected at the date a loan is placed on nonaccrual status, is reversed and charged against interest income. In addition, the accretion of net deferred loan fees is suspended when a loan is placed on nonaccrual status. Subsequent cash receipts are applied either to the outstanding principal balance or recorded as interest income, depending on our assessment of the ultimate collectability of principal and interest.
We manage our portfolio to identify problem loans as promptly as possible and take immediate actions to minimize losses. To accomplish this, our Loan Administration and Risk Management Department monitors the asset quality of our loans and investments in real estate portfolios and reports such information to the Credit Policy Committee, the Finance Department, and the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors.
SOURCES OF FUNDS
We manage our liquidity risk and funding needs through our Treasury function and our Asset/Liability Committee. We have significant experience managing our funding needs through both borrowings and deposit growth.
As a financial institution, we and the Bank have access to several sources of funding. Among these are:
•Commercial and retail deposit programs
•Federal funds purchased
•Federal Home Loan Banks (FHLB) borrowings
•Federal Reserve Discount Window access
Our branch strategy has been focused on expanding our market penetration and retail footprint in Delaware, southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey and attracting new customers in part to provide additional deposit growth.
WSFS Bank is the largest locally-headquartered community bank in the Delaware and greater Philadelphia region. WSFS Bank primarily attracts deposits through its retail branch offices and loan production offices, in Delaware, southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey, as well as through our digital banking platforms.
WSFS Bank offers various deposit products to our customers, including savings accounts, demand deposits, interest-bearing demand deposits, money market deposit accounts and certificates of deposit. In addition, WSFS Bank accepts “jumbo” certificates of deposit with balances in excess of $100,000 from individuals, businesses and municipalities.
The following table shows the maturities of certificates of deposit of $100,000 or more as of December 31, 2020:
|(Dollars in Thousands)|
|Maturity Period||December 31, 2020|
|Less than 3 months||$||182,688 |
|Over 3 months to 6 months||55,786 |
|Over 6 months to 12 months||110,922 |
|Over 12 months||135,052 |
Federal Home Loan Bank Advances
As a member of the FHLB, we are able to obtain FHLB advances. At December 31, 2020, we had $6.6 million in FHLB advances, compared with $112.7 million at December 31, 2019. The lower outstanding advances from the FHLB at December 31, 2020 were impacted by prepayments made during the year as part of routine balance sheet and liquidity management. During 2020, the weighted average interest rate of FHLB advances was 2.22%, a decrease from 2.43% at December 31, 2019, as the current period was impacted by the lower interest rate environment and the aforementioned prepayment of higher cost borrowings. Pursuant to collateral agreements with the FHLB, the advances are secured by qualifying first mortgage loans, qualifying fixed-income securities, FHLB stock and an interest-bearing demand deposit account with the FHLB. As a member of the FHLB, we are required to purchase and hold shares of capital stock in the FHLB and we were in compliance with this requirement with a stock investment in FHLB of $5.8 million as of December 31, 2020 and with $21.1 million at December 31, 2019.
We received $0.5 million in dividends from the FHLB during 2020 compared to $1.5 million during 2019. For additional information regarding FHLB stock, see Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Trust Preferred Borrowings
In 2005, the Trust issued $67.0 million aggregate principal amount of Pooled Floating Rate Securities at a variable interest rate of 177 basis points over the three-month LIBOR rate. These securities are callable and have a maturity date of June 1, 2035.
Federal Funds Purchased and Securities Sold Under Agreements to Repurchase
During 2020 and 2019, we purchased federal funds as a short-term funding source. At December 31, 2020, we had no federal funds purchased, compared to $195.0 million at an average rate of 1.60% at December 31, 2019. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had no securities under agreements to repurchase as a funding source.
On June 13, 2016, we issued $100.0 million of senior notes due 2026 (the 2016 senior notes). The 2016 senior notes mature on June 15, 2026 and have a fixed coupon rate of 4.50% from issuance to, but excluding, June 15, 2021, and a variable coupon rate of three month LIBOR plus 3.30% from June 15, 2021 until maturity. The 2016 senior notes may be redeemed beginning on June 15, 2021 at 100% of principal plus accrued and unpaid interest. The proceeds remaining after the redemption of the 2012 notes are being used for general corporate purposes.
On December 3, 2020, we issued $150.0 million of senior notes due 2030 (the 2020 senior notes). The 2020 senior notes mature on December 15, 2030 and have a fixed coupon rate of 2.75% from issuance until December 15, 2025 and a variable coupon rate equal to the three-month term Secured Overnight Funding Rate, (SOFR), reset quarterly, plus 2.485% from December 15, 2025 until maturity. The 2020 senior notes may be redeemed beginning December 15, 2025 at 100% of principal plus accrued and unpaid interest. The net proceeds from the issuance of the 2020 senior notes are being used for general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, financing organic growth, acquisitions, repurchases of common stock, and redemption of outstanding indebtedness.
Reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures included in Item 1
We prepare our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. To supplement our financial information presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP, we provide the following non-GAAP financial measures in Item 1: core ROA, the tangible common equity to tangible assets ratio, core EPS, and core ROTCE. We believe these measures provide investors with useful information for understanding of the company’s performance when analyzing changes in our underlying business between reporting periods and provide for greater transparency with respect to supplemental information used by management in its financial and operational decision making. We believe the presentation of these non-GAAP financial measures, when used in conjunction with GAAP financial measures, is a useful financial analysis tool that can assist investors in assessing the company’s operating performance and underlying prospects. This analysis should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP.
Core ROA, Core EPS and Core ROTCE are calculated as follows:
| ||For the year ended|
|(Dollars in thousands)||December 31, 2020|
|Calculation of Core ROA (non-GAAP):|
|Net income attributable to WSFS (GAAP)||$||114,774 |
|(Less): Securities gains||(9,076)|
|Unrealized gains on equity investments, net||(761)|
|Realized gains on equity investments, net||(22,052)|
|Plus: Corporate development and restructuring expenses||4,838 |
|Loss on early extinguishment of debt||2,280 |
|Contribution to WSFS Community Foundation||3,000 |
|Plus: Tax impact of pre-tax adjustments||3,645 |
|Adjusted net income (non-GAAP)||$||96,648 |
|Average assets||$||13,148,317 |
|ROA (GAAP)||0.87 ||%|
|Core ROA (non-GAAP)||0.74 ||%|
|Calculation of Core EPS (non-GAAP):|
|EPS (GAAP)||$||2.27 |
|Plus/(less): Pre-tax adjustments: Securities gains, realized/unrealized gains on equity investments, corporate development and restructuring expense, loss on early extinguishment of debt, and contribution to WSFS Community Foundation||(0.43)|
|(Plus)/less: Tax impact of pre-tax adjustments||0.07 |
|Core EPS (non-GAAP)||$||1.91 |
|Calculation of Core ROTCE (non-GAAP):|
|Net average tangible common equity|
|Average stockholders’ equity of WSFS||$||1,836,115 |
|Less: average goodwill and intangible assets||563,126 |
|Net average tangible common equity||$||1,272,989 |
|Adjusted net income (non-GAAP) attributable to WSFS||$||96,648 |
|Plus: Tax effected amortization of intangible assets||8,481 |
|Core net tangible income (non-GAAP)||$||105,129 |
|Net average tangible common equity||$||1,272,989 |
|Core return on average tangible common equity (non-GAAP)||8.26 ||%|
The tangible common equity to tangible assets ratio is calculated as follows:
|(Dollars in thousands)||December 31, 2020|
|Period End Tangible Assets|
|Period end assets||$||14,333,914 |
|Goodwill and intangible assets||(557,386)|
|Tangible assets||$||13,776,528 |
|Period End Tangible Common Equity|
|Period end Stockholder’s equity of WSFS||$||1,791,726 |
|Goodwill and intangible assets||(557,386)|
|Tangible common equity||$||1,234,340 |
|Tangible common equity to assets||8.96 ||%|
The Company and the Bank are subject to extensive federal and state banking laws, regulations, and policies that are intended primarily for the protection of depositors, the Deposit Insurance Fund of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the banking system as a whole, and not for the protection of our other creditors and stockholders. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) is the Bank’s primary regulator and the Federal Reserve is the Company’s primary regulator. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) regulates the Bank’s compliance with federal consumer financial protection laws.
The statutes enforced by, and regulations and policies of, these agencies affect most aspects of our business, including prescribing permissible types of activities and investments, the amount of required capital and reserves, requirements for branch offices, the permissible scope of our activities and various other requirements. These laws and regulations and the ways in which they are applied to us can change significantly. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act, which was enacted in 2010 and amended by the Economic Growth Act in 2018, imposed significant new restrictions and an expanded framework of regulatory oversight for banking institutions and their holding companies.
The Bank’s deposits are insured by the FDIC to the fullest extent allowed by law. As an insurer of bank deposits, the FDIC promulgates regulations, requires the filing of reports, and has authority to examine the operations of all institutions to which it provides deposit insurance for insurance purposes.
The laws and regulations to which the Company and the Bank are subject cover all aspects of our business, including lending and collection practices, treatment of our customers, safeguarding deposits, customer privacy and information security, capital structure, liquidity, dividends and other capital distributions, transactions with affiliates and conduct and qualifications of personnel. Such laws and regulations directly and indirectly affect key drivers of our profitability, including, for example, capital and liquidity, product offerings, risk management, and costs of compliance. As a result, the extensive laws and regulations to which we are subject and with which we must comply significantly impact our earnings, results of operations, financial condition and competitive position. The impact of such regulations on our business is discussed further below, as well as in "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Risk Factors – Risks Relating to Regulation."
Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act
On March 27, 2020, the CARES Act was enacted, providing wide ranging economic relief for individuals and businesses impacted by COVID-19. These economic relief initiatives included the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP), relief with respect to troubled debt restructurings (TDRs), mortgage forbearance, government stimulus payments and extended unemployment benefits. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, enacted on December 27, 2020, extended some of these relief provisions in certain respects.
The CARES Act created the PPP and funded it with $349 billion. The PPP is a stimulus response to the potential economic impacts of COVID-19, and its purpose is to provide forgivable loans to smaller businesses that use the proceeds of the loans for payroll and certain other qualifying expenses. The Small Business Administration (SBA) manages and backs the PPP. If a loan is fully forgiven, SBA will repay the lending bank in full. If a loan is partially forgiven or not forgiven at all, a bank must look to the borrower for repayment of unforgiven principal and interest. If the borrower defaults, the loan is guaranteed by SBA.
On April 6, 2020, WSFS Bank began participating in the PPP. We processed PPP loan applications until April 16, 2020, when the SBA announced that it had exhausted the $349 billion appropriated in the CARES Act, and stopped accepting PPP applications. On April 24, 2020, the President signed into law the Paycheck Protection Program and Health Care Enhancement Act, which supplemented certain programs established by the CARES Act and provided $310 billion in additional funding for the PPP. To date, we have provided nearly $1.0 billion in PPP loans for more than 5,400 new and existing WSFS Customers and are now processing loan forgiveness applications. The Bank has not accepted any applications since August 8, 2020, the statutory deadline for submissions by prospective borrowers under the first round of PPP lending. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 appropriated a further $284 billion to the PPP (PPP 2.0), and permitted certain PPP borrowers to receive “second draw” loans. In January 2021, WSFS Bank began participating in the PPP 2.0 by outsourcing the processing and servicing of PPP 2.0 loans to third party providers. The PPP 2.0 loans will not be originated on our balance sheet; however, we anticipate the resulting deposits from our Customers obtaining PPP 2.0 loans from other originating lenders will impact our financial condition in 2021.
The CARES Act and related guidance from the federal banking agencies provide financial institutions the option to temporarily suspend requirements under GAAP related to classification of certain loan modifications as TDRs, to account for the current and anticipated effects of COVID-19. The CARES Act, as amended by the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, specified that COVID-19 related loan modifications executed between March 1, 2020 and the earlier of (i) 60 days after the date of termination of the national emergency declared by the President and (ii) January 1, 2022, on loans that were current as of December 31, 2019 are not subject to TDR accounting requirements under GAAP. Additionally, under guidance from the federal banking agencies, other short-term modifications made on a good faith basis in response to COVID-19 to borrowers who were current prior to any relief are not TDRs under ASC Subtopic 310-40, “Troubled Debt Restructuring by Creditors.” These modifications include short-term (e.g., up to six months) modifications such as payment deferrals, fee waivers, extensions of repayment terms, or delays in payment that are insignificant. We have provided a number of customer relief programs in our commercial and retail portfolios, such as payment deferrals or interest only payments on loans and leases, disaster assistance, and waiving minimum deposit balance and direct deposit requirements as well as early withdrawal penalties for CDs or IRAs. Additionally, we are offering new lines of credit or increases to existing lines of credit and increased remote deposit limits for those individuals and businesses impacted by COVID-19. To date, we made short-term modifications for approximately $2.1 billion of loans and leases to provide our customers monetary relief, which were reduced to $114.8 million or less than 2% of our loan and lease portfolio as of December 31, 2020. In general, pursuant to the CARES Act and related guidance from the federal banking agencies, we have not reported these short-term modifications as TDRs.
The CARES Act also provides for an opportunity to carry back net operating losses (NOLs) arising from 2018, 2019 and 2020 to the prior five tax years. We have such NOLs reflected on our balance sheet as a portion of our current tax receivables, which were previously valued at the federal corporate income tax rate of 21%. However, the provisions of the CARES Act provide for NOL carryback claims to be calculated based on a rate of 35%, which was the federal corporate tax rate in effect for the carryback years. Consequently, effective December 31, 2020, we have revalued the benefit from our NOLs to reflect a 35% tax rate.
The CARES Act also includes a range of other provisions designed to support the U.S. economy and mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on financial institutions and their customers. For example, provisions of the CARES Act require mortgage servicers to grant, on a borrower’s request, forbearance for up to 180 days (which can be extended for an additional 180 days) on a federally-backed single-family mortgage loan, or forbearance up to 30 days (which can be extended for two additional 30-day periods) on a federally-backed multifamily mortgage loan when the borrower experiences financial hardship due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Further, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Federal Reserve has established a number of facilities to provide emergency liquidity to various segments of the U.S. economy and financial markets. Many of these facilities expired on December 31, 2020, or were extended for brief periods into 2021. The expiration of these facilities could have adverse effects on the U.S. economy and ultimately on our business.
Debit Card Interchange Fees
The Federal Reserve has issued rules under the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, as amended by a section of the Dodd-Frank Act, known as the Durbin Amendment, to limit interchange fees that an issuer with $10 billion or more in assets, such as the Bank, may receive or charge for an electronic debit card transaction. Under the rules, the maximum permissible interchange fee that an issuer may receive for an electronic debit transaction is the sum of 21 cents per transaction and five basis points multiplied by the value of the transaction. In addition, the rules allow for an upward adjustment of no more than one cent to an issuer’s debit card interchange fee if the issuer develops and implements policies and procedures reasonably designed to achieve the fraud-prevention standards set out in the rule. The Bank became subject to these rules beginning July 1, 2020.
Transition from London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (LIBOR)
In 2014, a committee of private-market derivative participants and their regulators, the Alternative Reference Rate Committee (ARRC), was convened by the Federal Reserve to identify an alternative reference interest rate to replace LIBOR. In June 2017, the ARRC announced the Secured Overnight Funding Rate (SOFR), a broad measure of the cost of borrowing cash overnight collateralized by Treasury securities, as its preferred alternative to LIBOR. In July 2017, the Chief Executive of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), which regulates LIBOR, announced its intention to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR to the administrator of LIBOR after 2021. The FCA has since announced its intention to extend the publication of most LIBOR term rates through June 30, 2023 (excluding 1-week U.S. LIBOR and 2-month U.S. LIBOR), but the Federal Reserve has continued to encourage banks to transition away from LIBOR as soon as practicable. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York has published SOFR rates on a daily basis since April 2018 and has published SOFR "term rates" daily since early 2020. The ARRC and other institutions continue to take steps to advance SOFR as an alternative benchmark. In July 2020, the federal banking agencies issued guidance for banking organizations on managing the transition to an alternative reference rate; for the agencies, however, SOFR is not the exclusive alternative. The International Swaps and Derivatives Association, which develops standardized language for the derivatives contracts that we enter into, has developed language that took effect in January 2021 replacing LIBOR with alternative risk-free benchmark rates, including SOFR for derivative contracts denominated in U.S. dollars.
Given LIBOR’s extensive use across financial markets, the transition away from LIBOR presents various risks and challenges to financial markets and institutions, including to the Company. The Company’s commercial and consumer businesses issue, trade, and hold various products that are indexed to LIBOR. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had approximately $1.8 billion of loans and $1.0 billion of derivatives that are utilized for customer guarantees, indexed to LIBOR, that mature after 2021. In addition, the Company had approximately $167.0 million of debt securities outstanding that are indexed to LIBOR (either currently or in the future) as of December 31, 2020. The Company had one investment security totaling $0.5 million, and no repurchase and resale agreements or FHLB advances indexed to LIBOR as of December 31, 2020.
Due to the uncertainty surrounding the future of LIBOR, it is expected that the transition will span several reporting periods through, and potentially beyond, the end of 2021. A cross-functional team from Finance, Lending, Risk and IT is leading our efforts to monitor this activity and evaluate the related risks and potential process changes arising from the transition from LIBOR. We have completed our initial assessment, including our internal risk assessment procedures, and the cross-functional team is working towards the migration of our existing contracts and system implementation. Our variable or floating rate instruments currently use LIBOR and give us discretion to determine a replacement benchmark rate if LIBOR becomes unavailable. We are still considering the appropriate transition for our legacy contracts; however, we have begun to shift some new products from LIBOR. Most recently, the floating rate on our $150 million of senior notes issued in 2020 (due 2030), beginning on December 15, 2025, is based on an alternative benchmark rate (which is expected to be the three-month term SOFR).
For additional information related to the potential impact surrounding the transition from LIBOR on the Company’s business, see "Risk Factors."
Regulation of the Company
The Company is a registered savings and loan holding company and is subject to the regulation, examination, supervision and reporting requirements of the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve conducts regular safety and soundness examinations or inspections of the Company, which result in ratings for risk management, financial condition, and potential impact on subsidiary depository institution(s), a composite rating, and a rating for subsidiary depository institution(s) (referred to collectively as the “RFI/C(D)” rating). The Federal Reserve treats the ratings and the examination reports as highly confidential, and they are not available to the public.
The Company is also a public company subject to the reporting requirements of the SEC. We file electronically with the SEC our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. We make available on the investor relations page of our website at www.wsfsbank.com, free of charge, copies of these reports as soon as reasonably practicable after filing or furnishing them to the SEC. The information on our website is not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Restrictions on Acquisitions
Federal law generally prohibits a savings and loan holding company from acquiring, without prior regulatory approval, direct or indirect control, all or substantially all of the assets, or more than 5% of the voting shares of a savings association or savings and loan holding company. These provisions also prohibit, among other things, any director or officer of a savings and loan holding company, or any individual who owns or controls more than 25% of the voting shares of such holding company, from acquiring control of any savings association that is not a subsidiary of such savings and loan holding company, unless the acquisition is approved by the Federal Reserve. Comparable restrictions apply to a savings and loan holding company’s acquisition or control of a bank or bank holding company although in such event the savings and loan holding company would become a bank holding company.
The Company is a grandfathered unitary thrift holding company, a status that allows us to acquire companies or business lines that engage in a wide range of non-banking activities. Should we lose that status, we will be constrained in our ability to acquire many non-banking companies or business lines.
Safe and Sound Banking Practices
Savings and loan holding companies and their non-bank subsidiaries are prohibited from engaging in activities that represent unsafe and unsound banking practices or constitute violations of laws or regulations. For example, the Federal Reserve opposes any repurchase of common stock or any other regulatory capital instrument if the repurchase would be inconsistent with the savings and loan holding company’s prospective capital needs and continued safe and sound operation. As another example, a savings and loan holding company may not impair its subsidiary savings association’s soundness by causing it to make funds available to non-depository subsidiaries or their customers if the Federal Reserve believes it not prudent for the Company to do so. The Federal Reserve can assess civil money penalties on a party for unsafe and unsound activities conducted on a knowing or reckless basis, if those activities caused a loss to an institution or pecuniary gain to the party. The penalties can range up to $25,000 for certain reckless violations and up to $1.0 million for certain knowing violations for each day such a violation continues.
Source of Strength
Confirming a longstanding policy of the Federal Reserve, the Dodd-Frank Act requires the Company to act as a source of financial strength to the Bank in the event of financial distress at the Bank. Under this standard, the Company is expected to commit resources to support the Bank, including at times when the Company would not otherwise be inclined to do so. The Federal Reserve also expects the Company to provide managerial support to the Bank as needed. The Federal Reserve may require a savings and loan holding company to terminate an otherwise lawful activity or divest control of a subsidiary if the activity or subsidiary poses a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness, or stability of a subsidiary savings association and is inconsistent with sound banking principles.
In addition, pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the capital rules for savings and loan holding companies are no less stringent than those that apply to their subsidiary savings associations.
The principal sources of the Company’s cash are debt issuances and dividends from the Bank, supplemented by dividends from its other operating subsidiaries (Powdermill®, West Capital, Cypress, Christiana Trust DE, and WSFS SPE Services, LLC). Our earnings and activities are affected by federal, state and local laws and regulations. For example, these include limitations on the ability of the Bank to pay dividends to the holding company and our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders. It is the policy of the Federal Reserve that holding companies should pay cash dividends on common stock only out of earnings available for the period for which the dividend is being paid and only if prospective earnings retention is consistent with the organization’s expected future capital needs and current and prospective financial condition. The policy provides that holding companies should not maintain a level of cash dividends that undermines the holding company’s ability to serve as a source of strength to its banking subsidiary. Consistent with this policy, a banking organization should have comprehensive policies on dividend payments that clearly articulate the organization’s objectives and approaches for maintaining a strong capital position and achieving the objectives of the Federal Reserve’s policy statement.
A Federal Reserve supervisory letter setting forth expectations for the payment of dividends by holding companies states that a holding company’s board of directors considering the payment of dividends should consider, among other things, the following factors: (i) overall asset quality, potential need to increase reserves and write down assets, and concentrations of credit; (ii) the potential for unanticipated losses and declines in asset values; (iii) implicit and explicit liquidity and credit commitments, including off-balance sheet and contingent liabilities; (iv) the quality and level of current and prospective earnings, including earnings capacity under a number of plausible economic scenarios; (v) current and prospective cash flow and liquidity; (vi) the ability to serve as an ongoing source of financial and managerial strength to depository institution subsidiaries insured by the FDIC, including the extent of double leverage and the condition of subsidiary depository institutions; (vii) other risks that affect the holding company’s financial condition and are not fully captured in regulatory capital calculations; (viii) the level, composition, and quality of capital; and (ix) the ability to raise additional equity capital in prevailing market and economic conditions (the Dividend Factors). It is particularly important for a holding company’s board of directors to ensure that the level of a prospective dividend is prudent relative to the organization’s financial position and is not based on overly optimistic earnings scenarios. In addition, a holding company’s board of directors should strongly consider, after careful analysis of the Dividend Factors, reducing, deferring, or eliminating dividends when the quantity and quality of the holding company’s earnings have declined or the holding company is experiencing other financial problems, or when the macroeconomic outlook for the holding company’s primary profit centers has deteriorated. The supervisory letter also states that, as a general matter, a holding company should eliminate, defer or significantly reduce its distributions if: (i) its net income available to shareholders for the past four quarters, net of dividends previously paid during that period, is not sufficient to fully fund the dividends, (ii) its prospective rate of earnings retention is not consistent with its capital needs and overall current and prospective financial condition, or (iii) it will not meet, or is in danger of not meeting, its minimum regulatory capital adequacy ratios. Failure to do so could result in a supervisory finding that the holding company is operating in an unsafe and unsound manner.
Additionally, as discussed above, the Federal Reserve possesses enforcement powers over savings and loan holding companies and their non-bank subsidiaries to prevent or remedy actions that represent unsafe or unsound practices, or violations of applicable statutes and regulations. Among these powers is the authority to proscribe the payment of dividends by bank and savings and loan holding companies.
Cypress and West Capital
Cypress and West Capital are registered investment advisers under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (the Investment Advisers Act) and as such are supervised by the SEC. The Investment Advisers Act imposes numerous obligations on registered investment advisers, including record-keeping, operational and marketing requirements, disclosure obligations and prohibitions on fraudulent activities. The SEC is authorized to institute proceedings and impose sanctions for violations of the Investment Advisers Act, ranging from fines and censure to termination of an investment adviser’s registration. Investment advisers also are subject to certain state securities laws and regulations. Noncompliance with the Investment Advisers Act or other federal and state securities laws and regulations could result in investigations, sanctions, disgorgement, fines and reputation damage.
Regulation of WSFS Bank
As a federally chartered savings association the Bank is subject to regulation, examination and supervision by the OCC. The OCC conducts regular safety and soundness examinations of the Bank, which result in ratings for capital, asset quality, management, earnings, liquidity, and sensitivity to market risk and a composite rating (referred to collectively as the “CAMELS” ratings). The OCC treats the CAMELS ratings and the examination reports as highly confidential, and they are not available to the public. The lending activities and other investments of the Bank must comply with various federal regulatory requirements. The OCC periodically examines the Bank regarding information technology, asset management/trust, and compliance with certain regulatory requirements. The Bank must file reports with the OCC describing its activities and financial condition, including a quarterly “call report” that is publicly available. The FDIC also has the authority to conduct special examinations of the Bank. The CFPB has exclusive authority to examine the Bank for compliance with federal consumer financial laws. The Bank is also subject to certain reserve requirements promulgated by the Federal Reserve.
Transactions with Affiliates and Insiders; Tying Arrangements
The Bank is subject to certain restrictions in its dealings with us and our affiliates. Transactions between savings associations and any affiliate are governed by Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, with additional limitations found in Section 11 of the Home Owners’ Loan Act. An affiliate of a savings association, generally, is any company or entity which controls or is under common control with the savings association. Some but not all subsidiaries of a savings association may be exempt from the definition of an affiliate. In a holding company context, the parent holding company of a savings association (such as the Company) and any companies which are controlled by such parent holding company are affiliates of the savings association. Generally, Sections 23A and 23B (i) limit the extent to which the savings association or its subsidiaries may engage in “covered transactions” with any one affiliate to an amount equal to 10% of such institution’s capital stock and surplus, and limit the aggregate of all such transactions with all affiliates to an amount equal to 20% of such capital stock and surplus and (ii) require that all such transactions be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable, to the institution or subsidiary as those that would be provided to a non-affiliate. The term “covered transaction” includes the making of loans to an affiliate, purchase of assets from an affiliate, issuance of a guarantee on behalf of an affiliate and several other types of transactions. Extensions of credit to an affiliate usually must be over-collateralized. In addition to the restrictions imposed by Sections 23A and 23B, the Home Owners’ Loan Act also prohibits a savings association from (i) lending or otherwise extending credit to an affiliate that engages in any activity impermissible for bank holding companies, or (ii) purchasing or investing in any stocks, bonds, debentures, notes or similar obligations of any affiliate, except for the purchase of shares of a subsidiary.
Restrictions also apply to extensions of credit by the Bank to its executive officers, directors, principal shareholders, and their related interests and to similar individuals at the Company and the Bank’s affiliates. In general, such extensions of credit (i) may not exceed certain dollar limitations, (ii) must be made on substantially the same terms, including interest rates and collateral, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with third parties, and (iii) must not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features. Certain extensions of credit also require the approval of the Bank’s Board of Directors.
The Bank may not extend credit, lease, sell property, or furnish any service or fix or vary the consideration for the foregoing on the condition that (i) the customer obtain or provide some additional credit, property, or service from or to the Bank or the Company or their subsidiaries (other than a loan, discount, deposit, or trust service or that are related to and usually provided in connection with any such product or service) or (ii) the customer not obtain some other credit, property, or services from a competitor, except to the extent such a condition is reasonably imposed to assure the soundness of the credit extended. The federal banking agencies have, however, allowed banks and savings associations to offer combined-balance discount packages and otherwise to offer more favorable terms if a customer obtains two or more traditional bank products. The law authorizes the Federal Reserve to grant additional exceptions by regulation or order.
Regulatory Capital Requirements
The regulatory capital rules require savings associations and their holding companies to maintain minimum levels of common equity Tier 1 capital equal to at least 4.5% of risk-weighted assets, Tier 1 capital equal to at least 6% of risk-weighted assets, total capital (the aggregate of Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital) equal to at least 8% of risk-weighted assets, and a leverage ratio of Tier 1 capital to average total consolidated assets equal to at least 4%. In addition, the capital rules subject savings associations and their holding companies to certain limitations on capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments to executive officers if the organization does not maintain a capital conservation buffer with a ratio of common equity Tier 1 to total risk-based assets of at least 2.5% on top of the minimum risk-based capital requirements. As a result, the Bank and the Company must adhere to the following minimum capital ratios to satisfy minimum regulatory capital requirements and to avoid limitations on capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments to executive officers: (i) common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 7.0%; (ii) a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 8.5%; (iii) a total risk-based capital ratio of at least 10.5%, and (iv) a Tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 4.0%.
A related set of rules, discussed below under “Prompt Corrective Action,” imposes additional requirements on insured depository institutions based on the same risk-based capital ratios and leverage ratio. Separately, the Home Owners’ Loan Act requires a savings association to maintain a ratio of tangible capital to total assets of at least 1.5%. In general terms, tangible capital is Tier 1 capital less intangible assets and certain other assets.
Under the regulatory capital rules, the components of common equity Tier 1 capital include common stock instruments (including related surplus), retained earnings, and certain minority interests in the equity accounts of fully consolidated subsidiaries (subject to certain limitations). A savings association must make certain deductions from and adjustments to the sum of these components to determine common equity Tier 1 capital. The required deductions for federal savings associations include, among other items, goodwill (net of associated deferred tax liabilities), certain other intangible assets (net of deferred tax liabilities), certain deferred tax assets, gains on sale in connection with securitization exposures and investments in and extensions of credit to certain subsidiaries engaged in activities not permissible for national banks. The adjustments require several complex calculations and include adjustments to the amounts of deferred tax assets, mortgage servicing assets, and certain investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions that are includable in common equity Tier 1 capital. Additional Tier 1 capital includes noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and related surplus, and certain minority interests in the equity accounts of fully consolidated subsidiaries not included in common equity Tier 1 capital (subject to certain limitations). Tier 2 capital includes subordinated debt with a minimum original maturity of five years, related surplus, certain minority interests in in the equity accounts of fully consolidated subsidiaries not included in Tier 1 capital (subject to certain limitations), and limited amounts of a bank’s allowance for credit losses (ACL). Certain deductions and adjustments are necessary for both additional Tier 1 capital and Tier 2 capital.
Risk weights under the capital rules range from 0% for cash, U.S. government securities, and certain other assets, 50% for qualifying residential mortgage exposures, 100% for corporate exposures and non-qualifying mortgage loans and certain other assets, to 600% for certain equity exposures. Loans that are past due by 90 days or more must be risk-weighted at 150%. Mortgage servicing assets and certain deferred tax assets that are not deducted from common equity Tier 1 capital in accordance with required adjustments are risk-weighted at 250%.
The regulatory capital rules apply a risk weight of 150% to “high volatility commercial real estate loans,” commercial real estate CRE loans that fails to meet certain prerequisites. The Economic Growth Act limits the 150% risk weight to “high volatility acquisition, development, and construction” loans and lifts certain restrictions that previously applied for a commercial real estate loan to receive a 100% risk weight.
In December 2018, the federal banking agencies issued a final rule that allows institutions to elect to phase in the regulatory capital effects of the Current Expected Credit Losses (CECL) accounting standard over three years. In addition, as a result of the CARES Act enacted on March 27, 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the federal bank regulatory agencies issued rules that allow banking organizations that implemented CECL in 2020 to elect to mitigate the effects of the CECL accounting standard on their regulatory capital for two years. This two-year delay is in addition to the three-year transition period that the agencies had already made available. We have elected to phase in the regulatory capital effects of CECL over three years, beginning in 2020, and have not opted to defer the effects of CECL for two years before the three-year phase-in period.
At December 31, 2020, the Bank was in compliance with the minimum common equity Tier 1 capital, Tier 1 capital, total capital, tangible capital and leverage capital requirements.
As of December 31, 2020, the Company was in compliance with the minimum common equity Tier 1 capital, Tier 1 capital, total capital, and leverage capital requirements.
Prompt Corrective Action
All banks and savings associations are subject to a “prompt corrective action” regime. This regime is designed primarily to impose increasingly stringent limits on insured depository institutions as their capital deteriorates below certain levels. There are five different capital levels: well capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized, and critically undercapitalized. A well-capitalized institution usually is entitled to various regulatory advantages, such as expedited treatment of applications, and no express restrictions on brokered deposits. In order to be “well capitalized”, an OCC-regulated savings association must have a common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 6.5%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 8.0%, a total risk-based capital ratio of at least 10.0%, and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 5.0%, and not be subject to any written agreement, order or capital directive, or prompt corrective action directive issued by the OCC. An adequately capitalized savings association must maintain a common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 4.5%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 6.0%, a total risk-based capital ratio of at least 8.0%, and a Tier 1 leverage ratio of at least 4.0%. If a savings association falls below any one of these floors, it becomes undercapitalized and subject to a variety of restrictions on its operations. There is no tangible capital requirement under prompt corrective action.
As of December 31, 2020, the Bank met all of the prerequisites for well-capitalized status. Additionally, for the Company to be considered “well capitalized” under Federal Reserve regulations, the Bank must be well-capitalized and the Company must not be subject to any written agreement, order, capital directive, or prompt corrective action directive issued by the Federal Reserve to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure. As of December 31, 2020, the Company met all the requirements to be deemed well-capitalized.
Both OCC and Federal Reserve regulations govern capital distributions by Federal savings associations to their holding companies. Covered distributions include cash dividends, stock repurchases and other transactions charged to the capital account of a savings association. A savings association must file a notice with the Federal Reserve at least 30 days before making any capital distribution. A federal savings association also must file an application with the OCC for approval of a capital distribution if either (1) the total capital distributions for the current calendar year (including the proposed capital distribution) exceed the sum of the institution’s net income for that year to date plus the institution’s retained net income for the preceding two years, (2) the institution would not be at least adequately capitalized following the distribution, (3) the distribution would violate any applicable statute, regulation, agreement or OCC-imposed condition, or (4) the institution is not eligible for expedited treatment of its filings. In certain situations, a federal savings association may be able to file a notice with the OCC rather than an application; in other situations, no application or notice is required for the OCC, although notice to the Federal Reserve still is necessary.
The OCC may prohibit a proposed capital distribution, which would otherwise be permitted by OCC regulations, if the OCC determines that such distribution would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice.
Under federal law, an insured depository institution cannot make any capital distribution if the capital distribution would cause the institution to become undercapitalized or if it is already undercapitalized. The FDIC also prohibits an insured depository institution from paying dividends on its capital stock or interest on its capital notes or debentures (if such interest is required to be paid only out of net profits) or distributing any of its capital assets while it remains in default in the payment of any assessment due the FDIC. The Bank is currently not in default in any assessment payment to the FDIC.
Insurance of Deposit Accounts
The Bank’s deposits are insured to the maximum extent permitted by the Deposit Insurance Fund. As insurer, the FDIC is authorized to conduct examinations of, and to require reporting by, insured institutions. It also may prohibit any insured institution from engaging in any activity determined by regulation or order to pose a serious threat to the FDIC. The FDIC also has the authority to initiate enforcement actions against savings associations, after giving the OCC an opportunity to take such action.
The maximum deposit insurance amount per depositor per insured depository institution per certain types of accounts is $250,000.
The FDIC uses a risk-based premium system to calculate quarterly assessments for FDIC-insured institutions. It has revised its methodology from time to time. The current methodology has a range of initial assessment rates from 3 basis points to 30 basis points on insured deposits, subject to adjustments. An insured depository institution's rate is determined within a range of base assessment rates based in part on its CAMELS composite rating, taking into account other factors and adjustments. The methodology that the FDIC uses to calculate assessment amounts is also based on whether the Deposit Insurance Fund has met the FDIC's designated reserve ratio, which is currently 2%, and the minimum reserve ratio of 1.35% set forth in the Dodd-Frank Act. As of December 31, 2020, the reserve ratio was 1.29%. Future changes in insurance premiums could have an adverse effect on the operating expenses and results of operations and we cannot predict what insurance assessment rates will be in the future.
The FDIC may terminate the deposit insurance of any insured depository institution, including the Bank, if it determines after a hearing that the institution has engaged or is engaging in unsafe or unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, order or any condition imposed by an agreement with the FDIC. It also may suspend deposit insurance temporarily during the hearing process for the permanent termination of insurance, if the institution has no tangible capital. Management is not aware of any existing circumstances that would result in termination of our deposit insurance.
Pursuant to regulations of the Federal Reserve, a savings association must maintain reserves against its transaction accounts. Because required reserves must be maintained in the form of vault cash or in a noninterest bearing account at a Federal Reserve Bank, the effect of the reserve requirement may reduce the amount of an institution’s interest-earning assets. During 2020, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Federal Reserve reduced all reserve requirement ratios to zero. The Federal Reserve indicated that it may adjust reserve requirement ratios in the future if conditions warrant.
Retail Branch Network
The Bank maintains branch offices in three states, Delaware, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. A federal savings association may open new branch offices in any state or relocate branch offices. Prior OCC approval is necessary unless the association is an “eligible” savings association and meets certain other conditions. The Bank currently qualifies as an eligible savings association. If prior approval is necessary, the OCC will consider the effect of the acquisition on a safe and sound banking system, the branch office's role in providing fair access to financial services by helping to meet the credit needs of the entire community, the association's compliance with laws and regulations, and the fair treatment of customers including efficiency and better service. If a federal savings association acquires branch offices through a merger with or through a branch purchase from another bank or savings association, the acquiring federal savings association must submit a Bank Merger Act application to the OCC, which requires a favorable decision on the acquisition of the branch offices. The Bank has grown its branch office network primarily through mergers with other institutions, rather than branch office purchases or de novo offices. A federal savings association also may open agency offices for certain purposes without prior OCC approval. The Bank does not have any agency offices and has no plans to open any such offices.
Consumer Protection Regulations
The Bank’s offerings of retail products and services to consumers are subject to a large number of statutes and regulations designed to protect the finances of consumers and to promote lending to various sectors of the economy and population. These laws include, but are not limited to the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, federal and state prohibitions on unfair, deceptive, and abusive practices, and regulations implementing each of these statutes. Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, the CFPB has exclusive authority to examine the Bank for compliance with these laws. States may adopt more stringent consumer financial protection statutes that could apply to us as well. State attorneys general also may file suit to enforce federal and state laws.
Since the CFPB first began operations, the CFPB's supervisory, enforcement, and rulemaking priorities have shifted as its leadership has changed, and we are unable to predict what effect, if any, future changes to the CFPB's leadership and priorities may have on the Bank.
Since its creation in 2011, the CFPB has issued a number of significant rules, including rules that affect nearly every aspect of the residential mortgage lending and servicing process, from origination through maturity or foreclosure. Among other things, the rules require home mortgage lenders to: (i) develop and implement procedures to ensure compliance with a “reasonable ability to repay” test and identify whether a loan meets a new definition for a “qualified mortgage,” in which case a rebuttable presumption exists that the creditor extending the loan has satisfied the reasonable ability to repay test; (ii) implement new or revised disclosures, policies and procedures for originating and servicing mortgages including, but not limited to, pre-loan counseling, early intervention with delinquent borrowers and specific loss mitigation procedures for loans secured by a borrower’s principal residence; (iii) comply with additional restrictions on mortgage loan originator hiring and compensation; (iv) comply with new disclosure requirements and standards for appraisals and certain financial products; and (v) maintain escrow accounts for higher-priced mortgage loans for a longer period of time. Some of these rules may be modified, but the CFPB has not finalized any changes. The CFPB also has authority to establish rules prohibiting unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices.
Privacy and Cybersecurity
The federal banking agencies pay close attention to the cybersecurity practices of savings associations, banks, and their holding companies and affiliates. The interagency council of the agencies, the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, has issued several policy statements and other guidance for banks as new cybersecurity threats arise. FFIEC has recently focused on such matters as compromised customer credentials and business continuity planning. Examinations by the banking agencies now include review of an institution’s information technology and its ability to thwart or mitigate cyber attacks.
Bank Secrecy Act and Anti-Money Laundering
The Bank Secrecy Act requires federal savings associations and other financial institutions to establish a risk-based system of internal controls reasonably designed to prevent money laundering and the financing of terrorism. Principal requirements for an insured depository institution include (i) establishment of an anti-money laundering program that includes training and audit components; (ii) establishment of a "know your customer" program involving due diligence to confirm the identity of persons seeking to open accounts and to deny accounts to those persons unable to demonstrate their identities; (iii) the filing of currency transaction reports for deposits and withdrawals of large amounts of currency; (iv) additional precautions for accounts sought and managed for non-U.S. persons; (v) verification and certification of money laundering risk with respect to private banking and foreign correspondent banking relationships; and (vi) the filing of suspicious activity reports for suspicious transactions. For many of these tasks an insured depository institution must keep records to be made available to its primary federal regulator. Anti- money laundering rules and policies are developed and enforced by a bureau within the U.S. Department of the Treasury, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), but compliance by individual institutions is also overseen by their primary federal regulator, which in the Bank's case is the OCC.
Bank Secrecy Act and anti-money laundering compliance has been a special focus of the OCC and the other federal banking agencies in recent years. Any non-compliance is likely to result in an enforcement action, often with substantial monetary penalties and reputation damage. A savings association or bank that is required to strengthen its compliance program often must put on hold any initiatives that require banking agency approval.
The Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), an office within the U.S. Treasury Department, administers laws and Executive Orders that prohibit U.S. entities from engaging in transactions with certain prohibited parties. OFAC publishes lists of persons and organizations suspected of aiding, harboring or engaging in terrorist acts, known as Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons. Generally, if a bank or savings association identifies a transaction, account or wire transfer relating to a person or entity on an OFAC list, it must freeze the account or block the transaction, file a suspicious activity report and notify the appropriate authorities.
Community Reinvestment Act
All savings associations and banks are subject to the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA), which requires each such institution to help meet the credit needs of low- to moderate-income communities and individuals within the institution’s assessment area. The CRA does not impose specific lending requirements, and it does not contemplate that a savings association or bank would take any action inconsistent with safety and soundness. The federal banking agencies evaluate the performance of each of their regulated institutions periodically. Evaluations that result in a conclusion of “Needs to Improve” or “Substantial Non-Compliance” may block or impede regulatory approvals for other actions by an institution.
The Bank received a rating of “Outstanding” in its most recent performance evaluation, dated October 26, 2020, for its existing assessment area of the state of Delaware, counties in the Greater Philadelphia region in Pennsylvania, and counties in southern New Jersey.
On May 20, 2020, the OCC issued a final rule that substantially revises how the agency will assess an institution's CRA performance beginning in 2023. We are continuing to evaluate the impact of the final rule on the Bank.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
As a financial services organization, we are subject to a number of risks inherent in our transactions and present in the business decisions we make. Described below are the primary risks and uncertainties that if realized could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and liquidity. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only risks we face.
We have identified our major risk categories as: market risk, credit risk, capital and liquidity risk, compliance risk, operational risk, strategic risk, reputation risk and model risk. Market risk is the risk of loss due to changes in external market factors such as interest rates. Credit risk is the risk of loss that arises when an obligor fails to meet the terms of an obligation. We are exposed to both customer credit risk, from our loans, and institutional credit risk, principally from our var